The Source Workbook - Questions  

Copyright © Nils Jansma 2008 - 2020, All Rights Reserved

CHAPTER  11 –  LET HUMANS SPEAK

 

Page  165  THE CREATING OF HUMANS

q-165.1   When investigating the fossil record for humans, what do we find?

 

q-165.2   What important question is raised about Genesis?

 

Page 166  Animals and the “Dust of the Ground”

q-166.1   What three components does the Bible associate with humans?

 

q-166.2   Why do we know that Adam wasn’t literally made of dust?

 

q-166.3   How might the ancient reader interpret the phrase, "formed from the dust of the ground?”

 

q-166.4   What does the Bible say God used to form animal bodies?

 

Page 167  Micr-oevolution and Direct Creation

q-167.1   How does God “make” new animals without having to actually “create” them out of nothing?

 

q-167.2   What example is given to illustrate how animals needed to change as the earth changed?

 

q-167.3   What example do we find in the Bible that proves the Holy Spirit can genetically change living creatures?

 

Page 168 

q-168.1   What did the Holy Spirit have to do with Mary’s body?

 

q-168.2   What does the Bible say about what evolutionists call the Cambrian Explosion?

 

q-168.3   What do evolutionists call the periods of rapid change?

 

q-168.4   What new understanding of the “formed from ground” phrase can be supported by the Bible?

 

Page 169  The Human Genome Initiative;  Modern Humans and Chimpanzees

q-169.1  If God used more “natural” processes to make the human body, would that be any less miraculous?

 

q-169.2   What is the “Human Genome?”

 

q-169.3   What is the Human Genome Initiative?

Page 170        

q-170.1   What is the process “DNA Hybridization” used for?

 

q-170.2   What happens then a DNA molecule is heated in a solution?

 

q-170.3   What happens if separated DNA ladders taken from two different sources are mixed and cooled?

 

q-170.4   How much does human DNA differ from chimpanzee DNA?

 

Page 171  CLASSIFICATION OF FOSSILS;  Overview

q-171.1   Why is human and chimpanzee DNA so much alike?

 

q-171.2   What would be missing if we could convert chimpanzee DNA into human DNA?

 

q-171.3   Does the evidence we have reviewed prove absolutely that God didn’t create everything instantaneously? 

 

q-171.4   Where do humans fit into the fossil record?

 

Page 172

q-172.1   What is Taxonomy, and who started it?

 

q-172.2   According to the taxonomic naming procedure, every living creature should have at least how many names?

 

q-172.3   What naming assumptions have been a basis for much confusion?

 

q-172.4   What are the seven groups or taxa that have been selected as naming categories?

 

Page 173  Hominids;  Prehominid Apes

q-173.1   What Hominid body parts comprise most of the fossils that have been found?

 

q-173.2   How do you determine if a fossilized Hominid walked upright?

 

q-173.3   When do the first “Archaic Primates” appear in the fossil record?

 

Page 174  Australopithecines (First Hominids)

q-174.1   What does being sexually “dimorphic” mean?

 

q-174.2   What significant “gap” exists in the fossil record?

 

q-174.3   Have any complete “Australopithecine” skeletons been found, and who is “Lucy?”

 

q-174.4   What is one significant reason why evolutionists believe humans and Australopithecines are related, but what factor is apparently being ignored?

 

Page 175  Homo habilis;  Source Figure 11.1:  Human Pelvis Significantly Different

q-175.1   What significant factor do we associate with Homo habilis?

 

q-175.2   Give reasons why there are questions regarding Homo habilis’s classification?

 

Page 176  Homo Erectus, Neanderthal, Homo Sapiens

q-176.1   Why do human evolutionary theories frequently change in detail?

 

q-176.2   What should we never expect to find?

 

q-176.3   What does Homo erectus mean?

 

Page 177  Adam and Eve

q-177.1   How was the creation of the earth a pattern for the creation of Adam and Eve and their home in Eden?

 

q-177.2   How long did it take God to create Adam and Eve?

 

q-177.3   While in the Garden of Eden, where did Adam and Eve get their food?

 

Page 178  Biblical Chronologies

q-178.1   To what kind of conditions did humans have to adapt after they left the Garden of Eden?

 

q-178.2   What assumptions did James Ussher make when he used Biblical chronology to calculate when Adam was created?

 

q-178.3   What can we say about Ussher’s first and second assumptions?

 

Page 179  The flood of Noah’s Day

q-179.1   What do leading “Young Earth” (YE) authorities have to say about Ussher’s third assumption regarding the chronological order of Biblical genealogies?

 

q-179.2   What conclusions have YE creationists come to regarding the age of the earth?

 

q-179.3   Why isn’t Ussher’s fourth assumption correct either?

 

q-179.4   If the Great Flood were a miracle, why would we not expect to find scientific evidence of its happening?

 

Page 180

q-180.1   Name other historic miracles that must be accepted largely by faith.

 

q-180.2   What does the geologic evidence actually suggest about Noah’s Flood?

  

q-180.3   When Noah’s Flood occurred, what came first, rising water or falling rain?

 

Page 181

q-181.1   What evidence is there that humans were active in the area when the Mediterranean Sea was 100 feet lower?

 

q-181.2   What occurred about 7,600 years ago that could have been similar to Noah’s Flood?

 

q-181.3   If the flood were local, what animals would Noah have likely saved?

 

q-181.4   What does ancient history reveal indicating that God lifted the curse off the land following the flood?

 

Page 182

q-182.1   How does the Bible’s historical record compare to ancient sources?

 

End of Chapter 11

 

 

The Source Workbook - Answers 

Copyright © Nils Jansma 2008 - 2018, All Rights Reserved

CHAPTER  11 –  LET HUMANS SPEAK

 

 

Page  165  THE CREATING OF HUMANS

q-165.1   When investigating the fossil record for humans, what do we find?

We find human-like skeletons have been discovered which appear to be up to 100 thousand years old.

q-165.2   What important question is raised about Genesis?

The primary question we ask is, Can the fossil record be reconciled with the Genesis account of creation?

Page 166  Animals and the “Dust of the Ground”

q-166.1   What three components does the Bible associate with humans?

The three components associated with human creation are body, soul, and God's breath (spirit). 

q-166.2   Why do we know that Adam wasn’t literally made of dust?

We can just look at our own bodies.  Of course, they are not made of dust.  So when the Bible says Adam was created from the "dust of the ground," it must be a metaphor for something else.

q-166.3   How might the ancient reader interpret the phrase, "formed from the dust of the ground?"Egyptian statutes

During the time when the Israelites were slaves in Egypt, the concept of clay statuettes coming to life was a common religious belief held by the Egyptian masses.  Almost all societies that worshiped idols believed they came to life when people weren't around.  Why else would the food offerings disappear? That the Israelites were involved in idol worship is recognized by their making a golden calf to protect them at the first sign of distress over the prolonged absence of Moses.  All of this is not to imply that the writer of Genesis believed such things. However, for God to make a clay statuette come to life was not a difficult concept for His newly converted followers to believe. Figure 11.1 comes from a National Geographic Magazine article discussing a May 23, 2007 archaeological find of the tomb of a wealthy official who served the Egyptian court a little over 4,000 years ago. The tomb is that of Henu, a courtier and real estate manager during the First Intermediate period (2181 to 2050 B.C.) of Egyptian history.  http://news.nationalgeographic.com

q-166.4   What does the Bible say God used to form animal bodies? 

The same ideas expressed in q-166.3 would apply to animals also.  The main point to remember is that Adam was formed (not created) in the same manner as the animals.  An important point of distinction is that God "formed man of the dust of the ground" (Genesis 2:7) and "in the image of God ... He created them male and female" (Genesis 1:27).  No animal was said to be created in the "image of God." 

Page 167  Micro-evolution and Direct Creation

q-167.1   How does God “make” new animals without having to actually “create” them out of nothing?

The fossil record suggests that God made animals capable of adapting (micro-evolution) to changes within their surrounding environments.  Over time, these adaptations formed new species but always staying within the natural limits of family kinds. If there were changes greater than the "natural limits" it was due to the operation of the Holy Spirit. 

q-167.2   What example is given to illustrate how animals needed to change as the earth changed?

The ice age extinction of large mammals is an example of conditions changing faster than the animals could adapt.  About 10,500 years ago, some 35 different kinds of animals disappeared from the North American fossil record. Included among these were mammoths, mastodons, certain camels, certain horses, giant ground sloths, and some large bear species. The November 12, 2001, National Geographic News references Donald Grayson, an archaeologist from the University of Washington, as pointing to climate shifts and related changes in weather and vegetation patterns as the likely cause for the demise of North America's megafauna (large animals).  This new climate-change theory is gaining more and more credibility over the old "execution" theory saying that North American human hunters wiped out all the large animals, with the exception of the bison or what we call the American buffalo. New Scientist 23 July 2005

q-167.3   What example do we find in the Bible that proves the Holy Spirit can genetically change living creatures?

The most direct example would be the miraculous birth of Jesus Christ to his virgin mother Mary.  (Luke 1:34-35)

Page 168 

q-168.1   What did the Holy Spirit have to do with Mary’s body?

Since Mary did not carry a "Y" chromosome, it had to be supplied by the Holy Spirit.  Throughout the history of the earth, the Holy Spirit could also have been involved in "tweaking" the genes of various animals enough to allow them to adjust to drastic environmental changes.  This "tweaked" adaptation could produce an animal that might look very different from its original parent.  There are other ways God could have done this "naturally" by use of the "toolkit genes" we all possess, without the miraculous intervention of the Holy Spirit.  Modern experiments using artificially engineered viruses as transporters indicate that it is possible to make radical changes to the genes of living creatures artificially.  It is speculated that special plants eaten by the target animal might have produced viruses that could make the needed changes within one generation.  This idea is supported by Adam and Eve's experience with the "tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil."  These plants may have achieved their effects by providing viruses that changed the couple's DNA for better or for worse.

q-168.2   What does the Bible say about what evolutionists call the Cambrian Explosion?

Cambrian Explosion

We have spent time stressing the difference between God's "creating" and "making" things with regard to the earth and life on it.  It is of particular interest that Genesis 1:21 says "God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, which the waters brought forth abundantly, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good (suitable, admirable) and He approved it."  Notice, it says that God "created" and the "waters brought forth abundantly, according to their kinds."  This verse is likely to be the Biblical description of the "Cambrian Explosion." (See Figure 11.2)
Suddenly, new life forms and body plans appear (God created them) and then they began to diversify in accord with environmental demands (waters brought forth).  It is also permissible to say that the verse implies, by the use of the word "and," that birds were also "created."  An abbreviated paraphrase would be, "God created sea monsters and living creatures [in the sea], and birds that fly in the air."  This can be taken as a blanket statement meaning that there is no immediate time limit attached to this event.  We are not to understand that everything that was to happen on the fifth creative day had to be complete before the sixth creative day started.  Though the creative days sound consecutive in Genesis, the evidence suggests that they sometimes ran concurrently and probably overlapped each other.  For instance, according to the fossil record, new plants were being developed well into the sixth creative day, even though Genesis says they were created on the third creative day. 
Therefore, we can say that the Bible implies that the arrangements leading to the creation of birds started on the fifth day, but the birds didn't actually make their way into the fossil record until the six day.  This is an important point of distinction because birds are such a unique life form that it would appear that they must have been created as stated in verse 21, but the event actually occurred almost 390 million years after the Cambrian Explosion occurred.  Of course, this is all based on the assumption that our current interpretation of the fossil record is accurate.  It may be that bird fossils will be discovered one day that are much older than those presently identified.   See Figure 11.2

q-168.3   What do evolutionists call the periods of rapid change?

This question was answered in q-136.3 (Chapter 9) when speaking about the subject of Punctuated Equilibrium.  To refresh your memory, Punctuated Equilibrium (PunkEek) is a theory that asserts evolutionary changes take place rapidly (punctuated) geologically speaking.   ("Rapid" in a geological context may involve many thousands of years.) In between these rapid periods of change, there may be a million years of stasis (equilibrium) or no apparent change.

q-168.4   What new understanding of the “formed from ground” phrase can be supported by the Bible?

Using the fossil record as a guide, "formed from the ground" could mean adaptive changes within animal families.  Since the earth's environment would be involved, it could be said that the earth helped to form their bodies through adaptation. 

Page 169  The Human Genome Initiative;  Modern Humans and Chimpanzees

q-169.1  If God used more “natural” processes to make the human body, would that be any less miraculous?

Was using Mary to produce Jesus any less miraculous than if Jesus had suddenly appeared one day, a fully formed being, created just like Adam?  Likewise, if God changed the genes of a female hominid that possessed a human-like body to produce Adam, the end result would have been the same.  In this analogy, the mother would have represented the "dust of the ground" and the modified genetic package, along with establishing a supernatural link directly to God, would be the "image of God" component that became a "living soul" when energized by the "breath of life" at birth.  This complex arrangement that combines the spiritual nature with the physical body will likely become a subject of experimental research in the future.  Already, a rational link between the two has been established based upon the physical limitations evident when explaining "free will" without giving consideration to a supernatural spiritual component. In the past, we generally believed that our free-will consciousness was produced within the brain itself. So, when the brain died, our consciousness died also. In other words, there is a question regarding whether "free will" can even exist within a caus & effect soley physical universe. However, there a growing branch of evidence that is suggesting our brain is not a generator of free will consciousness but a receiver like a television set. When our brain dies, our consciousness lives on in the spiritual transmitter state. Only time will tell whether this theory is true or not.  

q-169.2   What is the “Human Genome?”

The Human Genome is where all the information needed to duplicate an individual's body is stored.  It is estimated that our genome contains about 19,000 protein-coding genes. This relatively small number comes as a surprise, because much simpler organisms such as roundworms and fruit flies have protein-coding genes twice that size. However, the small number is deceptive in that human cells can make several different proteins from a single gene by using clever cutting and splicing alternatives. The results are that the total number of potential proteins actually capable of being made by the human genome ends up being larger than that of the roundworm and fruit fly. Additionally, components of the human genome that have been labeled "junk" are now known to comprise an amazing network of support information not yet fully understood at this time.

Human Genome

q-169.3   What is the Human Genome Initiative?

The information in The Source regarding this subject needs to be brought up to date. The study has mainly been completed, and The Human Genome Initiative turned into the Human Genome Project (HGP). It was an international scientific research project with the goals of determining the sequence of the chemical base pairs that make up human DNA and of identifying the assumed 25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint. Originally, the total number of genes was estimated to be anywhere from 80 to 200 thousand. However, by 2015, that number was revised down to be about 19,000-20,000 human protein-coding genes. See Figure 11.3 How Big is the Human Genome

Page 170        

q-170.1   What is the process “DNA Hybridization” used for?

The process is used to determine the relative difference between the DNA samples taken from different donors.  For instance, this was part of the process used to determine the difference between chimpanzee and human DNA.

q-170.2   What happens then a DNA molecule is heated in a solution? DNA Molecule 

Just as when you boil water, the hydrogen bonds break and water becomes steam, when you heat a DNA molecule in a solution, its hydrogen bonds break and the strands separate.  Because the relative bonding strength is different for water and DNA, the solution doesn't have to boil to separate DNA.  The temperatures at which the DNA bonds separate help to identify its chemical properties.  

q-170.3   What happens when separated DNA ladders taken from two different sources are mixed and cooled?

Figure 11.4, illustrates that the base pairs Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine always combine as shown.  This is why the strands are called "complementary."  We can refer to these as the A-T and G-C combinations.  When you separate the molecule along the Hydrogen Bond Line (HBL) by heating it in a liquid, the separated strands will try to recombine when the solution is cooled.  If you mix  separated strands of DNA taken from two different sources, they will still try to combine, but will not be completely successful because of the relative differences in the genetic sequence of the dissimilar A-T and G-C components.

q-170.4   How much does human DNA differ from chimpanzee DNA?

In the September 2005 issue of the prominent science journal Nature, a paper was  published involving studies made by 67 prominent scientists.  They reached the conclusion that in comparing important human genes with chimpanzee genes, there was only a difference of somewhere between 0.01% and 0.02%. This is a very small difference and, in my opinion, gives the misimpression that chimps and humans are so closely related that they could possibly mate and produce viable offspring. However, when you compare the chromosomes of humans to chimpanzees, you are given an entirely different picture. For one, chimpanzees along with all the great apes, have one additional chromosome pair than humans. That alone would eliminate any possibility of naturally crossing humans with chimpanzees or apes. It is also noted that there are nine other major chromosomal differences between chimpanzees and humans. So even though there are striking similarities between chimp and human DNA, there are also striking differences. It is estimated that there are about 10 times as many differences between humans and chimps as there are between humans and other humans. You can certainly see God's hand in this. If humans and apes could crossbreed and produce semi-intelligent animals as offspring, it could possibly result in The Planet of the Apes for real.

Page 171  CLASSIFICATION OF FOSSILS;  Overview

q-171.1   Why is human and chimpanzee DNA so much alike?Molar Teeth Humans & Apes

Mainly because we have so many physical features in common.  For instance, both humans and apes have a Y-5 molar tooth structure.  This means that the DNA program that codes for molar teeth is probably identical in both humans and apes.  All you have to do is note all the physical similarities between two creatures to predict the similarities of their DNA.  However, in essential areas such as the brain, speech, and hearing, ape DNA is significantly different in addition to the chromosomal differences.

q-171.2   What would be missing if we could convert chimpanzee DNA into human DNA?

Animals do not have "image of God" souls/spirit.  No matter how much our DNA is similar to ape DNA, animals lack free-will intelligence.  This also would apply to hominid DNA. 

q-171.3   Does the evidence we have reviewed prove absolutely that God didn’t create everything instantaneously? 

No, of course not. God can do anything He wants and we might never know the details using our natural powers of observation. What we have stated is only an opinion based upon the physical evidence we have reviewed. However, some have said that God built in an appearance of age  to test our faith in the Bible's record of creation. We believe this to be a mistaken view of what is actually being tested. We have attempted to show that the Bible can be interpreted to support both a scientific view and a miraculous view of creation. The question then becomes, Which interpretation is the more likely to be true, and how can we test our answer? In both cases, we must use science as our testing agent. In order to properly interpret the Bible, we have to rely on the science of linguistics. So it isn't a case of our faith in the Bible that's being tested, it is our faith in the science of linguistics that is being tested. Who does God expect us to believe, the linguistic scientist or the physical scientist? The authors of The Source are of the opinion that God would expect us to place greater confidence in our tested observations of the natural world than in the educated guesses made by linguists based upon their interpretation of incomplete ancient writings taken from the ruins of archaeological site excavations. Because the Hebrew Bible (called the Tanakh "teh nok") was written over a period of many hundreds of years, it may be considered unreasonable to believe that the very first use of the ancient word for "day" in the Bible would be understood well enough to cause one to assert that the earth was created before the "sun, moon and stars."  It is this misunderstanding of the Biblical text that was used to support the Geocentric (earth centered) concept of the solar system to the embarrassment of all its supporters. Such an interpretation made its proponents look foolish after  precise observations and mathematical calculations proved beyond any doubt that the sun is the center of the solar system.  We believe the same principles apply today.  This fact has been made apparent in question p-112.1, where Genesis 1:6-7 was harmonized with Genesis 1:16-17.  The Bible clearly states that "God set them [the sun, moon, and stars] in the expanse which was used to divide the waters below from the waters above.  If one insists that the language of the Bible teaches that the sun, moon, and stars were physically created on the fourth day, then it will also have to be accepted that they were positioned under the "waters above."  In my opinion, to suggest this as a Biblical teaching is the equivalent to suggesting that the earth is the center of the solar system.  

q-171.4   Where do humans fit into the fossil record?

Human are at the top of the fossil record.  Only domestic animals can be said to come after humans were created.  However, domestic animals appear to be modified or tamed wild animals.  Such "taming" does not appear to be an accident.  Since these animals were not created but were formed "out of the ground," the language used suggests that selected wild animals were divinely "tamed" for man's use.  This supposition is supported by the fossil record.   Interestingly, the new animals referenced in Genesis Chapter 2, are contextually positioned within a suitable "helper" category.  In other words, our tamed animals appear to be a gift from God given to Adam as part of a  helper group, each of which he was instructed to personally name.  However, it was soon discovered that something was missing.  Though the animals were certainly useful as helpers for Adam's, they were not suitable to meet his personal needs for companionship because, among other things, they did not speak his language.  So God went on to crown or finish His creative efforts in a grand finale by making and creating woman who Adam later named Eve, the mother of us all  (Genesis 3:20).

Genesis 2:18-23 (MKJV) And Jehovah God said, It is not good that the man should be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him. (19) And out of the ground Jehovah God formed every animal of the field and every fowl of the air, and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them. And whatever Adam called each living creature, that was its name. (20) And Adam gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the air, and to every animal of the field. But there was not found a suitable helper for Adam. (21) And Jehovah God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, and he slept. And He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh underneath. (22) And Jehovah God made the rib (which He had taken from the man) into a woman. And He brought her to the man. (23) And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She shall be called Woman because she was taken out of man.
Taxonomic naming catagories

Page 172

q-172.1   What is taxonomy, and who started it?

Originally, taxonomy referred to the principles used in classifying living things.  But now it can be said to include classifying all "things."   It was started by Carolus Linnaeus in the latter 1700s.

q-172.2   According to the taxonomic naming procedure, every living creature should have at least how many names?

The classification of living things is now known as "alpha taxonomy."  This system assigns at least two names to every creature.  This is sort of like our first and last name but reversed.  Homo is the surname and Sapiens is the given name.  

q-172.3   What naming assumptions have been a basis for much confusion?

Today, evolutionary assumptions of relationships using DNA comparisons form the basis for classification.  While there are adaptive relationships, this method can imply alternate relationships that may not exist. 

q-172.4   What are the seven groups or taxa that have been selected as naming categories? 

Though seven groups are still recognized, there have been changes.  In the new classification scheme, "things" are included that are non-living. As a result, additional headings have been added to the system that includes "Domain" and "Life." (See Figure 11.6) This new approach incorporates the three-domain system introduced in 1990 by Carl Woese. So there are now three domains in the Life catagory which are Archaea, Eubacteria and Eukaryota.  This revised arrangement of taxa (singular taxon) gives recognition to fundamental differences in the DNA of these three domains.   

Page 173  Hominids;  Prehominid Apes

q-173.1   What Hominid body parts comprise most of the fossils that have been found?

The hard parts of a skeleton are more likely to survive the ages.  These include teeth and lower jaw followed by the upper skull cap.

q-173.2   How do you determine if a fossilized Hominid walked upright? 

The foramen magnum (FM), or hole in the base of the skull, is one way upright posture can be determined. The great ape's FM is located further towards the back than in humans. When standing erect, the ape's head tends to tilt forward naturally. This requires more neck muscles attached to the back of skull (muscle attachment points) to hold the head in place.The location of the Foramen Magnum By comparing of the position of the FM and muscle attachment points in early hominid species with the those in modern human skulls, one can determine if the animal stood erect. It is of interest to consider all the anatomical changes that must take place to accommodate bipedalism or walking upright. Based upon current fossil evidence, it is estimated that bipedal primates emerged approximately four million years ago.

If we assume that a knuckle walking quadruped, like a chimpanzee, was suddenly able to walk upright, significant changes would have had to occur in the arrangement and size of the foot bone, shape and size of the hip, size of the knee, length of the leg, and the shape of the vertebral column and its orientation. Additionally, the FM would move forward and the muscle attachments and size in the back of the skull would be reduced because the head more or less balances on the top of the vertical spine. The quadruped's head and spine are horizontal and need heavy muscles and attachments to keep it from falling forward. All these changes are a package deal and would have had to occur within one generation because there would be no obvious advantage for each of these changes to occur one at a time. Why should the foot and ankle change in anticipation of upright posture? This question applies to each of the other changes also. Until upright posture came, the individual changes to the animal's skeleton were not needed. Darwinian evolution cannot explain how these simultaneous changes occurred naturally.

q-173.3   When do the first “Archaic Primates” appear in the fossil record?

At present, fossil parts collectively called Purgatorius are said to be a proto-primate and were discovered in the State of Montana. May be the first primate They are estimated to be about 65 million years old. They were first described as primate-like by William Clemens in a 1974 issue of Science and  are thought to represent a small animal about the size of a rat. However, recent studies (2015) suggest the Purgatorius may not be as closely related to Primates as originally thought. So we will just have to wait and see who finally gets the crown for being the first primate.

Page 174  Australopithecines (First Hominids)

q-174.1   What does being sexually “dimorphic” mean?

It means that there are significant differences between the body size of the males and females of a species. 

q-174.2   What significant “gap” in Africa exists in the fossil record?

While there have been more fragmentary primate fossils found since The Source was written, a "gap" between 13.5 and 5 mya still exists.  This is an important period because it includes brain development and bipedal locomotion.  In December 2002, an extinct species of a primate fossil called Pierolapithecus catalaunicus was discovered in what is now Hostalets de Pierola, Catalonia (Spain) which accounts for the "Pierola" part of the name. This animal is said to have lived about 13 Mya and adds some revealing information to help cover the "gap" though this claim is in dispute.

q-174.3   Have any complete “Australopithecine” skeletons been found, and who is “Lucy?”

 Quite recently a more detailed skeleton of an AustralPitthecine has been released to the public called "Little Foot". The fossil skeleton was found in 1994-1998 in South Africa. It has been concluded that the creature walked upright based upon its four ankle bones. Because all the bones were completely embedded in a concrete-like rock, their recovery was extremely slow and difficult. It took Clark and his team a number of years to fully extract, clean and analyze the bones which was finally completed in 2017. The specimen was estimated to be 3.67 mya by means of a new radioisotopic technique. Click to see more details

Oldest Australo skeleton

q-174.4   What is one significant reason why evolutionists believe humans and Australopithecines are related, but what factor is apparently being ignored?

The opinion is that a reconstruction of the skeleton of Lucy shown in Figure 11.9 (AL288-1 yellow box) has human looking characteristics.  Whether she could walk upright has been the subject of debate.  The conclusion that she did walk upright is not based upon the location of the Foramen Magnum because that feature was not included in the find.  Instead, the conclusion that Lucy walked upright is based upon bone and joint geometry of her existing hip and leg extremities. 

Page 175  Homo habilis;  Source Figure 11.1:  Human Pelvis Significantly Different

q-175.1   What significant factor do we associate with Homo habilis?

We associate tools with Homo habilis.  A debate has been on going until recently as to whether Homo habilis was a direct ancestor to Homo erectus. In 2007 it was discovered that H.hablis and H.erectus coexisted and therefore, were more likely related by a common ancestor than by direct decent. 

q-175.2   Give reasons why there are questions regarding Homo habilis’s classification?

Homo habilis looks more like a tree dweller than an upright biped. The small size and rather primitive attributes have led some experts (Richard Leakey among them) to propose excluding H. habilis from the genus Homo entirely and placing them instead in Australopithecus as Australopithecus habilis. Richard Leakey is the son of Louis Leaky who was the original discover of H.hablis.

Page 176  Homo Erectus, Neanderthal, Homo Sapiens

q-176.1   Why do human evolutionary theories frequently change in detail?

Probably because they are likely to be incorrect with regard to the details.  If there is a supernatural component behind the changes seen in the fossil record, Darwinists will never get the details right.  It seems that the more they discover the more they find themselves in need of new theories to explain away the contradictions they uncover.  Of course, the same can be said for some creationists if dogmatic asertions are make regarding how God chose to create the various life forms.  If we do not go beyond the evidence like Darwinists often do, we will not have to revise our statements as much. 

q-176.2   What should we never expect to find?

We should never expect to find unquestionable physical proof that God created everything.  Apparently, He chose to create in such a way that natural laws are often used in what appear to be miraculous ways until discovered otherwise.  That means no matter what we discover in nature, we will probably always need to rely on  personal faith as the final basis for our belief. 

q-176.3   What does Homo erectus mean?

Turkana Boy skeleton

It means a lot like it sounds, erect (erectus) standing man (homo).  However, when compared to modern humans, the specimen shown in Figure 11.10, may look strange with her low sloping forehead, strong brow ridges shading deep set eyes, and practically no chin to speak of.

Page 177  Adam and Eve

q-177.1   How was the creation of the earth a pattern for the creation of Adam and Eve and their home in Eden?

Though the two creation events were separated by millions of years, they nevertheless followed the same pattern as described in The Source.  

q-177.2   How long did it take God to create Adam and Eve?

It is assumed that God's planting of the Garden Park in the land of Eden was done miraculously.  If that is a correct assumption, then time is not relevant to the discussion.  When He "caused to grow every tree," (Genesis 2:8-9) He could have waited many years for them to grow and reproduce naturally or He could have caused them to grow rapidly just as He did with a "prepared plant" for Jonah. (Jonah 4:6) It is our opinion that he followed the latter procedure and made everything within six 24 hour periods.  At this time, 24 hours would make sense because the earth had already been on that day-night cycle for billions of years, and we are restricting our attention to only a few square miles of its surface.  With these restrictions in place, there is no way we could ever hope to determine factually how God created anything at that time.

Genesis 2:8-9 And Jehovah God planted a garden eastward in Eden. And there He put the man whom He had formed. (9) And out of the ground Jehovah God caused to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food. The tree of life also was in the middle of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. [LITV]

Jonah 4:6 And Jehovah God prepared a plant, and it came up over Jonah [apparently very quickly], to be shade over his head, in order to deliver him from his misery. And Jonah rejoiced with great joy over the plant.[LITV]

q-177.3   While in the Garden of Eden, where did Adam and Eve get their food?

They were what we would call vegetarian gatherers who were somewhat like the Nation of Israel during their "manna" gathering period in the wilderness.  Adam and Eve had to gather their food from the local trees each day.  Since the produce was so plentiful, they had a somewhat easy life.  Apparently, they didn't have to "work hard and sweat" very much before they sinned.

Genesis 3:17-19: And he said to the man, "You listened to your wife and ate the fruit which I told you not to eat. Because of what you have done, the ground will be under a curse. You will have to work hard all your life to make it produce enough food for you. (18) It will produce weeds and thorns, and you will have to eat wild plants. (19) You will have to work hard and sweat to make the soil produce anything, until you go back to the soil from which you were formed. You were made from soil, and you will become soil again." [LITV]
 

Page 178  Biblical Chronologies

q-178.1   To what kind of conditions did humans have to adapt after they left the Garden of Eden?

They had to immediately adapt to changes with regard to their food supply.  Based upon what we know about climate, their descendants also had to adapt to different weather patterns ranging from tropical to freezing as they migrated away from Edon.  

q-178.2   What assumptions did James Ussher make when he used Biblical chronology to calculate when Adam was created?

He made four reasonable assumptions that placed limits on the reliability of his dating results.  What do we know about James Ussher (sometimes spelled Usher)?  He was born on  January 4, 1581 and died on March 21, 1656.  He was Anglican Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625-1656. He wrote many scholastic works, but we probably remember him primarily because he used Biblical chronology to calculate that God's "In the beginning" date of creation was the night preceding October 23, 4004 BC. Later in the 19th century, there was great interest in determining the Biblical age of the earth. This was primarily a western concern because the Greeks and eastern philosophers viewed the universe along with the earth as being eternal. However, western Christian philosophers starting as far back as Augustine interpreted the "In the beginning" phrase of Genesis 1:1 as indicating that everything had a definite beginning. It is this atmosphere of anticipation that made James Ussher's chronology all the more exciting because many religious cults in the 1800's were using it to predict the Second Coming of Christ. It could be that this same atmosphere of end-time excitement may be starting to gain momentum again today.

q-178.3   What can we say about Ussher’s first and second assumptions?

They are both false.  1.  There ARE undated verses in the Biblical account.  2.  There ARE people missing in the Biblical genealogies.

Page 179  The flood of Noah’s Day

q-179.1   What do leading “Young Earth” (YE) authorities have to say regarding Ussher’s third assumption regarding the chronological order of Biblical genealogies?

They also agree that Ussher's chronology is flawed.

q-179.2   What conclusions have YE creationists come to regarding the age of the earth?

They believe that it is somewhere between 6,000 to 10,000 years old.  Some hold this belief based upon faith alone.  They are not interested in what science says.  Others believe that scientists are a part of a great conspiracy to misrepresent the evidence and are, therefore, wrong regarding the earth's age.  That belief is sometimes referred to as Creation Science which mistakenly claims you can prove scientifically that the earth is young.

q-179.3   Why isn’t Ussher’s fourth assumption correct either?

There ARE missing historical periods in the Bible.  The period of time between the writings of Malachi to when Jesus appeared is not accounted for in Scripture. 

q-179.4   If the Great Flood were a miracle, why would we not expect to find scientific evidence of its happening?Car Sanburg's poem Grass

Miracles are supernatural.  That means you cannot use natural causes to explain them.  Another matter to consider is that everything on the earth is constantly being recycled by the action of the elements.  For this reason, the evidence of a global flood would be weathered away very quickly.  I am reminded of Carl Sandburg's  poem, Grass, indicating how quickly places of great devastation lose their identity. See Figure 11.11

Page 180

q-180.1   Name other historic miracles that must be accepted largely by faith.

Note those enumerated in The Source.  When it comes to the topic of "miracles," it should be evident that the ancients thought many of the earth's natural processes were controlled directly by divine intervention. Often the proposed miracle is more a matter of timing than in the event itself. For instance, when God provided the Israelites with meat in the wilderness (Exodus 16:12-13) by sending them swarms of quail, we are not required to think the quail were miraculously created for the occasion. In fact, when the miracle is repeated, we are told at Numbers 11:31 that God used a "wind" to transport the quail from the sea and cause them to fall, apparently exhausted, all around the camp of the sojourning Israelites. They were likely a migrating flock that God redirected by using wind as the driving force. The fact that migrating quail are known to pass by the area occasionally lends proof that the event actually happened. Therefore, it is our opinion that in some cases, what may have appeared to be miracles were really descriptions of natural events that have since been explained. Again, the miracle is in the timing and not necessarily in all the details believed to have caused the event to take place. Additionally, Bible writers often explain things as they saw them and not as they actually were. This is called phenomenology or Phenomenal Language. A good example is the use of the term "sunrise" or "sunset." These terms are phenomenal expressions and do not actually describe the mechanics of the event. We know that the sun only appears to rise when in fact it is stationary and the earth is rotating. Some Biblical advocates have made an issue of this and have asserted that the Bible never speaks phenomenologically. We think this is a mistake. For that reason, we will from time to time call attention to things the Bible speaks of phenomenologically and explain the natural reality the events might represent.  We always want to add that these qualifications are only our opinion and that God can do anything He wants.  Our explanations are knowledgable interpretations of the evidence as we understand it with the idea that Bible is reasonably written and can be harmonized with reality most of the time.

Exodus 16:12-13 I [God] have heard the murmurings of the sons of Israel. Speak to them [Moses], saying, You shall eat flesh at evening, and in the morning you shall be filled with bread. And you shall know that I am Jehovah your God. (13) And it happened at evening, the quails came up and covered the camp. And in the morning the dew lay all around the host.

Numbers 11:31 And a wind went forth from Jehovah. And it cut off quails from the sea and let them fall by the camp, about a day's journey on this side, and about a day's journey on the other side, all around the camp, and about two cubits high upon the face of the earth.

q-180.2   What does the geologic evidence actually suggest about Noah’s Flood?

nanodiamonds

It suggests God used a world wideflood caused by melting glaciers to punish the descendants of Adam's son Seth.  The evidence indicates that a worldwide flood caused by the oceans rising as much as 100 feet or more in a relatively short period of time.  Apparently, this sudden rise in sea level was caused by a melting of some of the Ice Age Glaciers that released very large quantities of water stored behind huge ice dams that collapsed due to a possible collision with an extraterrestrial object about 12,000 years ago.  This period of time is significant in that there are climate anomalies noted at both the north and south poles at this time.  More recent evidence has been released in favor of this hypothesis. Click to see report

q-180.3   When Noah’s Flood occurred, what came first, rising water or falling rain?

The Bible says that the "fountains of the great deep burst open."  This implies that sea levels were rapidly rising.  An investigation is currently being conducted to determine if such an event actually occurred and whether or not it could also have contributed to the extinction of all the large North American animals (Megafauna) that suddenly disappeared about 12,000 to 13,000 years ago. There is a dark, thin layer of debris about 1.5 inches thick (3 cm) that is believed to be evidence of a terrestrial impact. It is found in Canada and even at a site in Belgium. It was formed about 12,900 years ago and is associated with a weather phenomenon called the Younger Dryas period. It is quite possible that this event could have produced a glacier melting pulse that suddenly released huge quantities of water from northern continental ice.  This in turn would cause a rapid rise in sea level in the vacinity of the release followed by a cooling response called the Younger Dryas that would end up with sea levels being lower than before the impact. In other words, the ocean suddenly rose and then quick fell to a lower elevation than before the melting event.  These events may have been used by God to punish the ungodly descendants of Adam's son Seth, which is the group of people primarily written about in the Bible.  According to Eve, Seth was born to take the place of Abel who was favored by God over Cain before he was murdered. The promise to Eve was that she would produce a "seed" who would crush the head of the serpent.  This promise was finally fulfilled by a descendant of Seth. Of course, we know that descendant to be Jesus Christ. In Scripture, almost everything written is related to God's dealings with the descendents of Seth.  Therefore, if we take the Bible at its word, we are able to assert that the Flood was local and only intended to punish the descendants of Seth, while preserving Noah and his family to be the ancestors of God's people in the future. The people and animals living on other continents were not affected by the Flood of Noah.

Page 181

q-181.1   What evidence is there that humans were active in the area when the Mediterranean Sea was over 120 feet lower?

Cosquer Grotto

The Cosquer cave is located in the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille, France, which is not very far from Cape Morgiou. Today the entrance to the 575 foot long cave access tunnel is located about 120 feet under water. It was discovered by Henri Cosquer in 1985. What is so interesting about the cave is that it contains several dozen paintings and carvings dating back to the Upper Paleolithic which have been C14 dated to between 27,000 and 19,000 years ago. This timing would be about at the conclusion of the last Ice Age when the oceans were up to 300 feet lower than today. The paintings are of a variety of land animals such as bisons, ibexes, and horses, but there is also a display of marine animals featuring seals and what appear to be auks and jellyfish. In addition to these, there were fifty-five hand stencils, numerous digital markings, and dozens of geometric symbols, as well as the representation of a "slain man". These findings substantiate the claim that the Mediterranean Sea was about 360 to 390 feet lower as late as 19,000 years ago due to the enormous icecaps developed during the last Ice Age that ended about 10,000 years ago. These cave findings were declared scientifically authentic under the supervision of Jean Clottes and Jean Courtin.
The Cossquer Underwater Cave>
 

q-181.2   What occurred about 7,600 years ago that could have been similar to Noah’s Flood?

Rising Oceans

Though the matter is still being debated, a rapid filling of the Black Sea had many features in common with Noah's Flood.  The point to be understood is that during the period between 18,000 to 4,000 years ago, when rising sea levels reached their current heights, the potential for massive flooding existed worldwide.  Though sea levels may have stabilized somewhat, inland seas, lakes, and some intruding bodies like the Persian Gulf were still subject to geologic changes that could allow catastrophic deluge-like events to occur in a short period of time.  We are slowly piecing together some of the history immediately following the conclusion of the last ice age.  The primary problem is that much of the evidence is about 100 to 300 feet (30-120 meters) under water like the Cosquer Cave discussed in q-181.1. 
What we are looking for is an event that would have discharged enough water to have washed Noah out into the Mediterranean Sea or the Black Sea. (See Figure 11.14)  Because of earth curvature, if Noah were only about 10 miles from land, he would not be able to see it from the ark window.  From his viewpoint, Noah would see water from horizon to horizon, and would no doubt conclude that the whole earth was covered with water. 
The Flood account in the Bible supports such a perspective based upon the concept of Phenomenal Language as we have already discussed.  It is a modern translating assumption that, in this context,  the word "erets (H776)" would mean planet earth instead of land.  An example of this is taken from the Brown Driver Briggs Hebrew dictionary that defines the word mabbul (H3999) as meaning 1a) "Noah’s flood that submerged the entire planet earth under water for about a year."    Mabbul, meaning "flood, deluge" is used only 13 times in the Bible and is translated "flood" every time.  Jewish earth
It should be apparent that the ancients had no concept of the earth being a planet. They viewed it as a plate floating or somehow set firmly on a great ocean, as if it had a foundation or was supported by submerged pillars mysteriously suspended in the water. This concept is related to what has been described as Phenomenal Language. (See question q-180.1) (See Figure 11.15)   However, the Brown Driver Briggs volume also implies in another definition that the Hebrews did have a word for "planet earth" which also meant "dry land."  The problem is, the word is only used once in the whole Bible at Daniel 2:10.  Since in this context Daniel was quoting a Babylonian priest, the term earth would have been limited to the priest's professional knowledge base.  Though the Babylonians, who were stargazers, did have an advanced view of the heavens, they apparently still had a limited view of the earth's size as exemplified at Daniel 4:10-11.  In this verse, a great tree is said to have been planted in the "midst [middle] of the earth," and it could be seen from "the end of all the earth."  The only geometric figure that satisfies this description would be a plate-like earth with a tree planted in its center or midst.  Therefore, a Babylonian priest's world view would have certainly excluded most parts of the earth, such as  North and South America and Australia etc. 

Daniel 2:10  AMP:  The Chaldeans [diviners] answered before the king and said, There is not a man on earth  (H3007) who can show the king this matter, for no king, lord, or ruler has [ever] asked such a thing of any magician or enchanter or Chaldean.

Daniel 4:10-11  AMP:  The visions of my head [as I lay] on my bed were these: I saw, and behold, [there was] a tree in the midst (H1459) of the earth, (H772) and its height was great. (11) The tree grew and was strong and its height reached to the heavens, and the sight (H2379) of it reached to the end (H5491) of the whole (H3606) earth (H772)Note: H772 (Aramaic)  "ara"  Definition:  1) earth, world, ground.;  H1459 (Aramaic) "gav"  Definition:  1) midst, the midst
 

Daniel 4:10-11  Thus were the visions2376 of mine head7217 in5922 my bed;4903 I saw,1934, 2370 and behold431 a tree363 in the midst (H1459) of the earth, (H772) and the height7314 thereof was great.7690 (11) The tree363 grew,7236 and was strong,8631 and the height7314 thereof reached4291 unto heaven,8065 and the sight (H2379) thereof to the end (H5491) of all (3606) the earth: (H772).  Note: Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Definitions:  H772 (Aramaic)  "ara"  Definition:  1) earth, world, ground.;  H1459 (Aramaic) "gav"  Definition:  1) midst, the midst

Ends of the Earth

 q-181.3   If the flood were local, what animals would Noah have likely saved?  It would be reasonable to assume that Noah would save his domestic animals.  Archaeological finds show that Southeast Asia is the home to many Biblical domestic animals.  These would include dogs, sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs.  The fossil record indicates that these animals appear to have been domesticated from about 12,000 to 8,000 years ago.  This time period fits our timeline if the flood of Noah happened about 12,000 years ago.  We look forward to forthcoming discoveries that will shed more light on how and when many of the common domestic animals we know were introduced into human society. See Domestic Animals

q-181.4   What does ancient history reveal indicating that God lifted the curse off the land following the flood?

It is now believed that farming, as we would define the term, first appeared in the Fertile Crescent, particularly in modern-day Iraq, Syria, and Israel around 11,500 years ago.  At this time, we find people beginning to select and cultivate food plants with specific nourishing characteristics. This would also be the general time period when we think the Bible says that God lifted the curse from the land.  The actual curse may have been related to both the climate and ice age geographic conditions which were now rapidly changing.  The continental ice was almost gone which exposed new and fertile areas of land for cultivation.  The local rain cycles were becoming more favorable to farming and the average temperature had risen.  Though there is evidence of earlier sporadic use of wild cereals like those that the descendants of Adam and Noah may have struggled to grow,  it was not until after 11,500 years ago that the eight so-called Founder Crops of agriculture finally appeared among early farming communities.   

Page 182

Babylonian World

q-182.1   How does the Bible’s historical record compare to ancient sources?

The Babylonian creation myth is said to predate the Biblical creation account by hundreds of years. However, a simple review of the myth itself shows that it contains some vague elements of Genesis, but is primarily a nature myth about the conflict between the cyclic seasons of the year. The original Babylonian author was no doubt familiar with a modified Genesis account in its prerecorded form. Before Genesis was written by Moses, there were probably many corrupted oral traditions of creation in circulation. The Babylonian myth is found in the ancient "Epic of Creation" also known as the Enûma Elish. The Enuma Elish is a Babylonian or Mesopotamian myth of creation which records the struggle between cosmic order and chaos. The popular version was written sometime in the 12th century BC in cuneiform on seven clay tablets. The story itself probably dates to the 18th century BC, or about the time when the god Marduk seems to have arisen to a position of prominence, although some scholars give it a later date (14th to 12th centuries BC.)

The creation of the world in the Enuma Elish begins with the universe in a formless state, from which emerge two primary gods, male Apsu and female Tiamat. They represent fresh and salt water, respectively. We are not told how this happens or from where they come.  Apsu and Tiamat get together and begin procreating by mixing their respective fresh and salt waters. From this, the first gods and goddesses came: Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar, Kishar and all the rest. Soon, disagreements occur, which end with the death of Apsu and with Ea becoming the chief god.  Ea has relations with his consort Damkina, and they have a god-son, Marduk, who is destined for greatness. In the poem, the god Marduk (or Assur in the Assyrian versions of the poem) is asked to defend the divine beings from an attack plotted by the saltwater ocean goddess Tiamat. Our hero Marduk offers to save the gods only if he is appointed their supreme unquestionable leader and is allowed to remain so even after the threat passes. The gods agree to Marduk's terms. Marduk immediately challenges Tiamat to combat and destroys her.

Now comes the creation account that is said to be the basis for the Genesis record. How does Marduk go about creating the heavens and the earth?  Simple, he rips Tiamat's corpse into two halves from which he fashions the earth and the skies. Marduk then creates the calendar, organizes the planets, stars and regulates the moon, sun, and weather. The gods pledge their allegiance to Marduk, and he creates earthly Babylon as the terrestrial counterpart to the realm of the gods. Now what about mankind? How does Marduk create them? This time he goes after Tiamat's husband, Kingu, killing him and and using his blood to create humankind to be workers for the gods.  Obviously, you have to have a vivid imagination to see much resemblance between the Enuma Elish account of creation and Genesis.  (Sources, Foster, B.R., From Distant Days : Myths, Tales, and Poetry of Ancient Mesopotamia. 1995, Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press. vi, 438 p., Bottéro, J., Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia. 2004, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. x, 246 p., Jacobsen, T., The Treasures of Darkness : A History of Mesopotamian Religion. 1976, New Haven: Yale University Press. 273.)
 

End of Chapter 11